What is Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)?
Did I think that it was possible that my body was craving something because maybe my body was missing some nutrients? Maybe vitamin B12? Was it possible that I had hypothesized incorrectly—that maybe we do need to be concerned with our intake of fat and maybe there’s just not enough in the average fruits and vegetables? Maybe it takes four months of drinking nothing whatsoever for your body to begin crying for all the cheesy goodness it could possibly handle? Of course I did—and that freaked me the (insert bad word) out. I isolated it to the events that surrounded that never-happened-before scenario. The one thing that was practically hollering at me with its raised hands, was the Gas-X that I had taken to relieve that godawful bloating that stormed my gut and continued to bombard it with discomfort and a very suppressed appetite for hours on end.
And because my life was rather structured, I eventually settled on this as being the culprit—, but I was never quite sure and the fact that these cravings persisted, that haunted me into reconsidering the already mentioned preconceived possibilities. I kept wanting to look into the ingredients found on the back of its box in hopes that there was some link. At first, I crawled, and the consumer in me was okay in being stopped in his tracks by a message very similar to this: “Simethicone (the active ingredient contained in Gas-X) has no known side effects.”1
That message was potently clear and I let it be for all these months—until today. After Googling for nearly fifteen minutes, I was almost ready to give up. I had no luck finding anything and kept running into very similar messages or one claiming there weren’t any ‘important’ or ‘significant’ side effects. They simply left it at that and didn’t wish to let the consumer know about any of these unimportant side effects that the FDA seems to just look the other way for. There was no way I was gonna pay for a yearly subscription to one of these online scientific journal pimps just so I could read that same message once more, but I did find this one for free: “Doctors may tell people to eat fewer foods that cause gas. However, for some people this may mean cutting out healthy (my emphasis) foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and milk products.”2 (Please note that this article directly recommends Gas-X as one of the plausible treatment options.)
And so back to Wikipedia I went to find whatever it was that I must have missed. There must have been something. My scouring eventually paid off: “Simethicone is an oral anti-foaming agent used to reduce bloating, discomfort and pain caused by excess gas in the stomach or intestinal tract. It is a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (my emphasis) and hydrated silica gel.”3 Whenever something is more than something, and in this case, two ‘somethings’—and probably more if I followed this further and further into the pits of the internet—you have to look into the ingredients that make up this compound. The easiest way to explain it is to picture two brothers. Let’s say one is named ‘younger brother’ and one is named Peter, but when referred to by others, they’re simply called ‘they’re’. “They’re wonderful boys.” “They’re so happy and cheerful and not the least bit miserable.” “They’re honest boys.” When in reality, one is a righteous (insert bad word) and the other is so wonderful that he compensates them into one beautiful bunch. And I’ve been trying to explain this to my parents for years.
Let me be blunt, ‘hydrated silica gel’ is a stranger to me, not something I looked too deeply into, but more of something I pushed aside because I found out more than enough from its counterpart to keep my fingers dancing on this very keyboard. This wasn’t to be a book with very many references, but when I keyed in ‘polydimethylsiloxane’ or its abbreviated alias ‘PDMS’ with ‘side effects’ and the jargon that eventually became synonymous with this rather naughty ingredient, I’m left with this chapter pointing towards the culprit that most certainly kicked these otherworldly cravings into high gear.
It was strange from the very onset. Like very freakin’ strange. It’s as if I hypothesized a bullseye and that’s what happened. And when I say “hypothesized a bullseye,” let it be known that there is no room for error here. I am going to ask you one very straight forward question before we jump around a bit and swirl our way back to all this evidence. Do you remember the first place I went when my cravings put me in that initial stranglehold? Think about it and we’ll get back to it very shortly.
I think we need to touch on a few points before we wrap this up and scoot it on its merry little way. As I was walking the other day and thinking about this all over again, I couldn’t help but be both hopeful and negative. I was hopeful that there would be some sort of connection and so surprised when I found it, but I was also being quite the stick in the mud. It just didn’t mesh with me for some reason that there’s no symptoms listed on the back of this box. These pharmaceutical pirates don’t lose sleep over telling the daily drug user he or she may or may not experience cramps, gastrointestinal distress, fatigue, sudden death, or the plethora of other friends that hop in that box and hide within the little printed letters in some random corner. They do it with ease and in the comfort of a drone-voice speed talker on the commercial.
If I didn’t find anything—would that be truly indicative of me being wrong? I just found myself asking these questions all over again and in a roundabout way, I eventually stumbled upon the sticking point: I’m not society and nor am I seeking to fit into their very diseased ways. And you have to take a moment and think about that. Let it settle. Put two and two together and re-think my symptoms from the point of view of some Westernized whoever. Are my symptoms impediments to their very being or their ways? Are my symptoms causing them any distress or unusualness in any way? Are my symptoms even symptoms?
Now think back to those ‘not worthy of being mentioned symptoms’. They’re not worthy for many reasons. One being that they probably didn’t notice them and another being that they’re really not considered symptoms for the average fool. I was craving the foods the typical person eats everyday—what’s so strange about that? What’s strange about that is that it does not appear to be strange at all. It kind of pushes me into the corner. I become a minority left to fend for myself. And not just that, I become some sort of crazy because it appears that I am trying to turn your daily habits into symptoms. My symptoms. My problems.
Imagine it this way. A hypothetical, but important nonetheless. I was pulled into this world by a doctor reaching into something they call a ‘c-section’. An APGAR of eight and normal when anything seven or above is generally deemed full of enough life. Sure I got a big fat zero for my ability to breathe, but everything else seemed to check out so the doctor let Mom, Pop, and my older brother take me home after many failed attempts to intubate me into a breather just like the rest of the gang.
My life went on like this and despite not ever sneaking a single breath, I got the flu just like you, but that’s not important. One day, I left all my groceries in the back of my car during a five hour drive home and was left to handful the various nuts that were organically sacked to my right. Gulp by gulp, something I hadn’t done in weeks.
Eventually I made it home. Eventually I had the worst case of bloating imaginable, enough to make me sneak out at three or so in the morning to a Walmart fifteen minutes away. Gas-X was purchased and many moons later, here I am, struggling to recover from these mysterious cravings. No scratch that, I’m not struggling from cravings. Instead, and I am embarrassed to say this, I started breathing shortly after taking those thin minty strips. Breath by breath I just couldn’t help myself. I found myself sneaking out at night into the woods for extra fresh air and there were even times when I got pissed at the nine year olds that kept me late at work and away from all that breathable oxygen out there. I just couldn’t help myself.
Now do you understand where I am coming from? There is clearly something wrong with the way we think about things. We’re testing society with all these fresh out of the chemical vat concoctions, yet our controls and very standards for the experiment are way off kilter.
I mean, what if breathing was not normal in this hypothetical situation? What if it was just something that we became addicted to? Something that we built our little worlds around? Something that we all suffered from day in and day out, but because everyone was suffering no one was suffering at all?
There’s an entire population—no, there are many of these populations that likely exhibit these not worthy of being mentioned symptoms. I’m speaking of the rodents, the Apes, and whatever other species they’ve called up to the cavalry as our first line of defense against the FDA trials of chemical exposure.
I began looking for some studies where they mixed animals with simethicone to see if they exhibited any symptoms worthy of sunlight. I found this: “However, cysts remained at the site of injection throughout the lifespan of many of these animals. There was no increase in the incidence of malignant or benign tumours in the groups of mice receiving the antifoam either in the diet or by injection, and there were no toxic effects that could be ascribed to the administration of silicone.”4 Not that important, but I think it’s worthy of being given some acreage on this very page.
In The China Study by T. Colin Campbell, he mentions a few rodent studies early on, pertaining to cancer. I believe animal proteins were being injected and that they were literally able to turn cancer on and off by just stopping the injections and repeating them like any modern rat torturer would do. This is an amazing find, and one of the key reasons I began looking into a plant-based diet, but why do we so often discredit these rodent studies? Why do we write their tumors off as not that big of a deal? All while pumping them full of these miracle concoctions in an effort to bring these dream drugs to human trials? Why is the cancer of one species not important to this species?
There is a huge gap here, one that needs to be filled. I don’t support any of this pharmaceutical bullshit and it has only brought me misery, but if you’re gonna do it and the public is going to continually let you get away with it, why don’t you just list the side effects rodents often experienced right there on the box. And while you’re at it, why don’t you list all the symptoms that popped up during the trial? This should be mandatory. These companies shouldn’t be able to barber up their boxes to the point of a crew cut. If a high dose kills the entire lot or even just makes them awkwardly bald and a few nanograms less does not, why hide all of this? Why do you run these glorious campaigns to convince the pleaders of how significant and successful your dolled up therapies are?
It’s potently clear that I experienced and still am experiencing the after burn of this anti-foaming son-of-a-bitch. Do I have Iegal rights here? Do you? I feel as though I have been left out to hang dry. How can you get away with this nonsense day in and day out?
This chapter is only going to get stranger so I my as well throw in my chips and bet my whole house on the premise that these idiots know something about this. That Novartis and every other peddler of Simethicone kind of likes the way things are unfolding. Is it not beneficial for the company to sell something that causes cravings for the very foods that are likely to cause the very symptoms being cured by their bottled-up sunshine? This is a vicious cycle and I’m left to ponder as to whether these companies are partnered up with every drive-thru in America or if I just gave them the greatest idea ever.
As a side note, it would be interesting to see a rat study where they tested cravings. I’m reading about Harry Harlow and I cannot help but think about this huge gap that exists between us and every other species. There was this period of time when Kurt Goldstein stated that: “Monkeys were born to be no more than the brain-damaged soldiers in their abilities.”5 I think it’s all too odd that a man can sit in the park and toss pinches of bread to the apparently addicted quackers.
Do I think there is some sort of separation between us and other species? Yes. I do because of the way I’ve been acculturated and I do because it seems reasonable when you think about it. Although, this can be argued. What does it mean to be intelligent? Complexity? Simplicity? Because in one, we’re at the top of the totem pole, but in the other, we’re nowhere near way behind. Complexity seems intelligent, but it’s wholly lacking in efficiency, no matter how many cars Toyota can pop out of its nine-month belly. I’m left to wonder if animals would choose something addictive over something nutritious. If there is some sort of separation between our complexity and their simplicity, or if we’re just choosing different routes. If they would react as we would react to an acute danger—in forceful preventiveness and active avoidance, followed by a quick forgetting of the past so that it can repeat itself once more.
To make such a study realistic, it would have to be something addictive that led to an acute struggle of some sort. It couldn’t necessarily be miniature whoppers or hard drives of squirrel porn—those would not suffice because we ourselves don’t recognize the chronic struggles that result in this thing we call aging and disease. Even things such as tobacco would not suffice, because even when we were choking up our lungs, we believed that Phillip Morris and their many compatriots were telling the truth when they told us it was entirely safe, if not good for us. This would however present an interesting variable to the experiment—whether these animals would recognize the problems and quit free willingly. It would be interesting because there would been no cowboys on billboards or doctor visits telling them otherwise.
We recognize anthrax in the mailbox and gunshots to the head, and since we cannot pill up a gunshot just yet, we’ll have to settle for some poison coated in something addictive—maybe Polydimethylsiloxane. Would any of the animals choose something different midweek, after watching those who’ve been raiding that very same bowl on the right for a week now, die? We all essentially can be reduced to our simplest needs to survive and reproduce, but would this enter the equation? And if it did, would these animals become better at detecting and actively avoiding such perils in the future? Would it ever come to the point where an animal would be able to reach the same line of reasoning that I am reaching right now—that an isolated event led to a craving that led to a body compromised by various symptoms?
I think there’s more to their intelligence and I think this domesticated control that enslaves them into a twisted form of obedience clouds our very judgement. Let it be known though that I do not recommend that any of these studies be carried out in any way, shape, or form—I only recommend for you to sit briefly and let this thought process enter into your realm of possibilities. It would be very caveman for such an intelligent society to torture others in their pursuit of making known what only needs to be recognized.
Onward, to the pot of evidence at the end of the rainbow—or should I say Pizza Hut?
FDA Approved Polydimethylsiloxane in Foods in 19986
An administrative decision by the federal Food and Drug Administration, published in the Federal Register on December 24, 1998, approved use of polydimethylsiloxane in human foods (except milk). The FDA decision was approved five years after a request by Dow Corning—a manufacturer of polydimethylsiloxane—had formally sought approval.
Polydimethylsiloxane—when subjected to higher temperatures—degrades into compounds that include Formaldelhyde, which is a widely recognized cancer-causing substance.
Ironically, that same December 24, 1998 FDA decision on allowing use of polydimethylsiloxane in human foods, allows direct use of Formaldehyde (at a concentration not exceeding one percent of the weight of the polydimethylsiloxane) as a “preservative agent in defoaming agents containing dimethylpolysiloxane …” In other words, FDA rules allow use of a known cancer-causing agent (Formaldehyde) to “preserve” polydimethylsiloxane, which itself breaks down into Formaldehyde!
Despite the fact that FDA administratively approved use of that silicone-based chemical in foods, polydimethylsiloxane is NOT listed as an approved substance for inclusion in foods under FDA’s “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) food guidelines.
Polydimethylsiloxane is apparently used in processing a wide variety of human foods.
In our food? Our food? No way!
No. 10 – Polydimethylsiloxane7
Polydimethylsiloxane, or PDMS as we will call it from here on out, is indeed a common food ingredient … you’ll even find it at your favorite fast-food haunts (we would name them, but we’re pretty sure you’ll never go back, and we think their Seven Layer Burritos are definitely worth frequent visits … oops!).
Aside from its use as a food additive, other interesting places you’ll find PDMS include Silly Putty, anti-foaming agents, breast implants, dry-cleaning solutions, silicone and head-lice treatments. Hey, we never said it was a cohesive list! Which reminds us … it’s also a bonding agent. Is there anything PDMS can’t do?
All McNuggets not created equal8
U.S. McNuggets not only contain more calories and fat than their British counterparts, but also chemicals not found across the Atlantic.
CNN investigated the differences after receiving a blog comment asking about them.
American McNuggets (190 calories, 12 grams of fat, 2 grams of saturated fat for 4 pieces) contain the chemical preservative tBHQ, tertiary butylhydroquinone, a petroleum-based product. They also contain dimethylpolysiloxane, “an anti-foaming agent” also used in Silly Putty.
By contrast, British McNuggets (170 calories, 9 grams of fat, 1 gram of saturated fat for 4 pieces) lists neither chemical among its ingredients.
“I would certainly choose the British nuggets over the American” says Ruth Winter, author of “A Consumer’s Dictionary of Food Additives.”
McDonald’s says the differences are based on the local tastes: In the United States, McNuggets are coated and then cooked, in the United Kingdom, they are cooked and then coated. As a result, the British McNuggets absorb less oil and have less fat.
“You would find that if you looked at any of our core food items. You’d see little, regional differences,” says Lisa McComb, who handles global media relations for McDonald’s, which has more than 32,000 restaurants in 117 countries. “We do taste testing of all our food items on an ongoing basis.”
One apparent difference is only a matter of labeling, according to McComb. U.K. McNuggets list ground celery and pepper, which are labeled simply as “spices” in the United States, she says.
Marion Nestle, a New York University professor and author of “What to Eat,” says the tertiary butylhydroquinone and dimethylpolysiloxane in the McNuggets probably pose no health risks. As a general rule, though, she advocates not eating any food with an ingredient you can’t pronounce.
Dimethylpolysiloxane is used as a matter of safety to keep the oil from foaming, McComb says. The chemical is a form of silicone also used in cosmetics and Silly Putty. A review of animal studies by The World Health Organization found no adverse health effects associated with dimethylpolysiloxane.
Wendy’s Natural-Cut Fries Not So Natural After All9
Wendy’s natural-cut fries with sea salt sound almost like granola in their commercials. The fast-food chain touts that the fries are natural-cut russet potatoes, sprinkled with sea salt for a fry that’s better (and better for you).
Shocker of a lifetime — Wendy’s may not be exactly telling the whole truth. According to Yahoo Finance, it’s true that Wendy’s fries have a bit of skin left on them (making them look all golden and natural). But then they’re sprayed with sodium acid pyrophosphate and dusted with dextrose, a corn-based sugar.
A visit to Wendy’s nutrition information website confirms the use of the above additives, as well as dimethylpolysiloxane, a silicone-based antifoaming agent. At least the sea salt is listed as… sea salt.
Leprino Foods: No Polydimethylsiloxane in Pizza Cheese10
Leprino Foods senior vice president for marketing and sales, Robert D. Boynton, has asserted that his company is not using polydimethylsiloxane in the manufacture of Leprino’s “Pizza Cheese” sold to Pizza Hut. Boynton’s assertion was made in a terse, February 17, 2006 letter sent to The Milkweed. The entire letter is reprinted on this page.
Boynton’s letter was written in response to an article appearing in the February 2006 issue titled, “Clean Up Pizza Hut’s Silicone-Laden Cheese!”
Boynton claims that Leprino is not using polydimethylsiloxane in “Pizza Cheese” produced under U.S. Patent #4,894,245. Boynton claims that the 18-year old patent (issued to Leprino Foods), which is listed on boxes of “Pizza Cheese”, is not relevant.
“Your false statements appear to be based on your reading of an eighteen year old Leprino patent, and a factually baseless leap to the conclusion that Leprino must practice every facet of any patent ever granted to it,” Boynton’s letter steamed.
Boynton implicitly threatened legal action by Leprino if The Milkweed did not act in a manner considered appropriate to Leprino Foods.
Boynton’s letter did not acknowledge or deny prior use by Leprino Foods of polydimethylsiloxane in manufacture of its “Pizza Cheese.” Based upon what further information The Milkweed has gleaned about polydimethylsiloxane, it is good that Leprino Foods is not presently using that chemical in its “Pizza Cheese”. (See accompanying article.)
Thus, we may conclude that Pizza Hut’s “Pizza Cheese” has been cleaned up.
Therefore, any consumer concerns about polydimethyl-siloxane in foods should not be directed at Pizza Hut. Instead, concerns should be directed at the FDA, which has approved use of that chemical in food.
And because I think it’s important for you to swallow this in its entirety and to have an accurate understanding of the full reach of this one chemical among many, I present this list11, a list of nearly every place you can find polydimethylsiloxane, but before I do so, let me include the quaint little snippet hidden at the bottom: “Note: Unless otherwise specified, food additive provisions apply to the food category indicated (e.g. Dairy), as well as to all subcategories of that category (e.g. Cheese, Ripened Cheese, etc.).”
You can find PDMS in these following foodstuffs and or beverages:
-Milk powder and cream powder (plain)
-Vegetable oils and fats
-Lard, tallow, fish oil, and other animal fats
-Fat spreads, dairy fat spreads and blended spreads
-Fruit in vinegar, oil, or brine
-Canned or bottled (pasteurized) fruit
-Jams, jellies, marmelades
-Fruit-based spreads (e.g., chutney) excluding products of food category 04.1.2.5
-Fruit-based desserts, including fruit-flavoured water-based desserts
-Fermented fruit products
-Frozen vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweeds, and nuts and seeds
-Vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), and seaweeds in vinegar, oil, brine, or soybean sauce
-Canned or bottled (pasteurized) or retort pouch vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), and seaweeds
-Vegetable (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweed, and nut and seed purees and spreads (e.g., peanut butter)
-Vegetable (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweed, and nut and seed pulps and preparations (e.g., vegetable desserts and sauces, candied vegetables) other than food category 04.2.2.5
-Fermented vegetable (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera) and seaweed products, excluding fermented soybean products of food categories 06.8.6, 06.8.7, 12.9.1, 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11
-Imitation chocolate, chocolate substitute products
-Confectionery including hard and soft candy, nougats, etc. other than food categories 05.1, 05.3 and 05.4
-Pre-cooked pastas and noodles and like products
-Batters (e.g., for breading or batters for fish or poultry)
-Soups and broths
-Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes (excluding products of food category 13.1)
-Dietetic formulae for slimming purposes and weight reduction
-Dietetic foods (e.g., supplementary foods for dietary use) excluding products of food categories 13.1 – 13.4 and 13.6
-Water-based flavoured drinks, including “sport,” “energy,” or “electrolyte” drinks and particulated drinks
-Beer and malt beverages
-Cider and perry
-Aromatized alcoholic beverages (e.g., beer, wine and spirituous cooler-type beverages, low alcoholic refreshers)
So what am I left to believe? Is it even feasible now to think that my cravings were not caused by this one little chemical? Is it beyond the scope of reality to think that PDMS was the key to its ignition?
Leprino Foods, the world’s largest Italian cheese manufacturer, is the nearly exclusive supplier of “Pizza Cheese” to the 6000+ Pizza Hut restaurants in the U.S. Leprino is based in Denver, Colorado. To control costs (and boost profits), Leprino Foods uses patented manufacturing processes that add large volumes of water, salt and food starch to so-called “granules” of “Pizza Cheese” prior to flash-freezing. Food starch is a particularly profitable addition to processed foods, since food starch holds ten times its own weight in water. All that food starch, water and salt in the Leprino’s “Pizza Cheese” creates problems for both cooking and refrigerated shelf-life.12
The plot only gets thicker and scarier when you think it through a tad bit more. Who knows what Leprino is doing and who knows what Pizza Hut is doing. I always fended for Pizza Hut when I was younger, stating how wonderful its cheese tasted. My opponents often responded with this quip: “Their cheese is fake—it’s not even real!” I had no idea what this meant at the time and my halfhearted response reflected that. What the hell was ‘fake’ to a ten year old, let alone the American consumer? How the hell can they make fake cheese? That doesn’t even make sense.
Of course I understood what they were saying, but I didn’t think there was much wrong with something being artificial. I mean, for heaven’s sake, nearly everything I was eating at the time was at least fifty percent artificial. Whether or not Pizza Hut still uses this chemical in its pizza, that’s besides the point. If they are, so be it. If they aren’t, they’ve obviously dreamed up something new that will make the public shiver one day, whether it be from the cancerous lesions or from the realization that there’s seriously something wrong with our food supply.
Regardless, should Gas-X and the other name brands selling Simethicone to their customers be able to do so without any indication of possible side effects being listed? It seems as though there’s this endless list of chemicals not being listed under the ingredients. They’re hidden as compounds—pieces of the unpronounceable jargon found on nearly everything we put into our mouthes nowadays. How is it possible that studies can show that this said chemical degrades into something that can cause cancer? How can you sell a product, and in this case, ironically, a treatment, that has been shown to be carcinogenic? Sure we’re not heating these thin minty strips up prior to absorption, but is this some kind of free pass that allows the pharmaceutical giants to keep quiet and let it be until a drug recall many years later? It just doesn’t seem practical.
It’s scary to see how easy it was for me to find information regarding this chemical as well. That there are these studies showing how dangerous it is. That all of this concern exists, but that it is buried below our very enduring trust in those that are promising all these cures for everything. That these chemicals are nearly in everything. That they are biting us at one moment and sucking out the venom in the next.
What scares me the most is the fact that I was strongly driven to consume these foods. That my willpower became this nonexistent wimp. If this chemical is no longer used, what does that say? Maybe that my brain is still wired to respond to this chemical in an effort to get more, despite not having consumed Pizza Hut in years—well before that 2006 article leeched their very non-dairy secrets. If this is so, I became hopped up on something that was no longer available in the many fast food franchises around the world, only to be led to a dead end and a different batch to get hopped up on. But like the many recyclings of BPA over the years, it is evident that this chemical is still at large. In our Wendy’s. Probably still at Pizza Hut. And everywhere in between. Something likely craved by everyone, despite nobody really knowing it.
- Gas-x side effects. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/sfx/gas-x-side-effects.html
- Norton, W. F. (2012). Controlling intestinal gas. International foundation for functional gastrointestinal disorders, 155, Retrieved from http://www.iffgd.org/store/viewproduct/155
- Simethicone. In (2013). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simethicone
- Collings, A. J., Kiss, I. S., Sharratt, M., & Culter, M. G. (1974). A lifespan study of a polydimethylsiloxane in the mouse. Food and cosmetics toxicology, 12(4), Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0015626474900571
- Blum, D. (2011). Love at goon park: Harry harlow and the science of affection. (Second ed.). Basic Books.
- Hardin, P. (2006, March). Fda approved polydimethylsiloxane in foods in 1998. Retrieved from http://www.themilkweed.com/Pizza_Cheese_Update_March_2006.pdf
- Top 10 common yet strange ingredients. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://science.discovery.com/top-ten/2009/ingredients/ingredients-10.html
- Martin, D. (2010, June 25). All mcnuggets not created equal. Retrieved from http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2010/06/25/a-tale-of-2-nuggets/?hpt=Sbin/
- Doss, L. (2011, April 18). Wendy’s natural-cut fries not so natural after all. Retrieved from http://blogs.browardpalmbeach.com/cleanplatecharlie/2011/04/wendys_natural_cut_fries_not_s.php
- Hardin, P. (2006, March). Leprino foods: No polydimethylsiloxane in pizza cheese. Retrieved from http://www.themilkweed.com/Pizza_Cheese_Update_March_2006.pdf
- Gsfa provisions for polydimethylsiloxane. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.codexalimentarius.net/gsfaonline/additives/details.html?id=205
- Bunting, J. (2006, January). Silicone–based chemical in pizza hut’s cheese. The Milkweed, (318), Retrieved from http://www.themilkweed.com/Feature_06_Jan.pdf